Many tissues like muscle, heart, kidney and lung can sometime be difficult to homogenize due to the presence of elastic connective tissue. If approached correctly, bead beating can effectively homogenize these resilient tissues, as well as bone, and result in a highly fluid homogenate with small particles sizes.
The most important aspect in effectively homogenizing resilient tissue by bead beating is to not overload the homogenization container with sample. Deep well plates, microfuge tubes, and vials can all be used, but sample size must be matched to the container as the grinding balls used in each format are limited in the mass of sample it can disrupt. Thus generally, microfuge tubes and deep well plates should be limited to 50 mg of tissue while 4 ml grinding vials can handle up to 200 mg. Up to 1 gm of tissue can be processed in 15 ml vials. Customized larger vials have even been used to homogenize the complete gastrointestinal tract of a rat for pharmacokinetic analysis.
Geno/Grinder will effectively homogenize resilient tissues. The major differences between the homogenizers are capacity and accessories.
Pourrut, Xavier, Marc Souris, Jonathan S Towner, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol, Jean-Paul Gonzalez and Eric Leroy. 2009. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:159